I read an article three or four years ago by Zachary Crockett in The Hustle.
Talking to son-in-law Heath in L.A. over an Oscar Party Buffet at San Vicente Bungalows in West Hollywood (he is a self-confessed introvert and a terrific leader) made me think about this topic again.
Here’s the essence of Mr Crockett’s argument.
A myth has pervaded the business world for far too long: introverts aren’t cut out to be leaders.
Some 65% of senior executives see introversion as a “barrier to leadership,” and only 6% think introverts have the people skills required to oversee a successful team.
Many businesses have a singular vision for what a good leader should be — outgoing, gregarious, an expert networker — and write off introversion as some kind of social “pathology.”
This is complete nonsense.
What is an introvert?
First categorized by Carl Jung in the 1920s, an introvert is most commonly defined as someone who gets his or her energy from alone time rather than socialising.
Unlike their extrovert counterparts who get energy from other people, introverts are typically introspective, quiet (but not necessarily shy), and observant.
Get energy from inside themselves Get energy from interaction, people
Often shy Often sociable
Have different public and private selves Same in public and private
Have a few close friends Make lots of friends easily
Quiet in large groups Outspoken in groups
Can concentrate for long stretches Distracted easily
Mentally rehearse before speaking Think out loud
Need time to make decisions Make decisions quickly
Learn by observing Learn by doing
Tend to bottle up emotions Unload emotions as they go
Introverts and extroverts may seem like polar opposites on paper, but there is often overlap — and nobody falls purely in either camp.
Of course, introverts define themselves in many different ways.
The Hustle surveyed 421 introverts who currently work in leadership roles. Here are a few definitions in their own words:
- “An introvert is someone who prefers isolated scenarios… someone who isn’t necessarily anti-social but someone who excels with internal workflow.” — David Acosta, co-founder of Rebel PR
- “To me, it means I get refreshed and rejuvenated by having some quiet time to myself on a regular basis.” — Dan Purcell, co-founder of Ever In Touch
- “Being an introvert doesn’t mean you’re a loser or socially awkward, it just means you need to be alone when others need to be with people.” — Kevin Pasco, co-founder of Nested Natural
Nobody is a pure introvert or extrovert (most are in-betweeners, or “ambiverts”). But in general, it is estimated that 33%-50%of the population skews introverted.
Yet, in the business world — especially among leaders — this isn’t the case:
- 96% of high-level executives identify as extroverts.
- There is a strong, scientifically proven bias against candidates who fall on the other end of the spectrum.
- In studies, extroversion is consistently ranked as the most important trait a leader can have.
This has a lot to do with how we’ve historically thought about leadership.
How culture defines “leadership”
In the most basic sense, leadership is “the process of influencing others in a manner that enhances their contribution to the realisation of group goals.”
At some point, society’s perception of a “good” leader shifted from someone who encourages collective success to a singular, charismatic titan — an outward spokesman more interested in public perception than team building.
Hundreds of studies spanning more than a century have attempted to identify what makes a good leader.
One such study, led by workplace development consultants Jack Zenger and Joseph Folkman, asked 300k+ business professionals to rank the top traits they look for in leaders. The consensus:
Traits of a Good Leader:
1) Inspires and motivates others
2) Displays high integrity and honesty
3) Displays technical or professional expertise
4) Drives for results
5) Communicates powerfully
6) Builds relationships
7) Develops others
8) Displays a strategic perspective
9) Solves problems, analyses issues
Introverts are more than capable of exhibiting most of the traits of a traditionally “good” leader.
None of these traits seem at odds with the nature of introverts.
But in our survey, 71% of respondents said they believed there was a stigma against hiring introverts into leadership roles.
Why is this the case? Mythology!
Myth #1: Introverts shy away from leadership roles
One of the pervading myths about introverts is that they simply don’t want to be leaders. That’s not the case.
Introverts have emerged as leaders in every arena. Among them:
- Michael Jordan, arguably the biggest sports star in history
- Audrey Hepburn, one of Hollywood’s all-time great actresses
- Mahatma Gandhi, the leader of India’s nonviolent revolution
- One-quarter of all US Presidents, including Thomas Jefferson, Abe Lincoln, and Barack Obama
In the business world, some of the most prominent founders, inventors, investors, and technologists — Bill Gates, Warren Buffett, Jeff Bezos, and many more — are self-identifying introverts.
Well-Known Introvert Leaders:
· Bill Gates
· Jeff Bezos
· Elon Musk
· Sergey Brin
· Marissa Mayer
· Warren Buffett
· Peter Thiel
· Steve Wozniak
· Mark Zuckerberg
As it turns out, many of the introvert traits that the business world considers to be detrimental and negative can actually be tremendous strengths in a leadership capacity.
Myth #2: Introverts don’t have the “people skills” to lead
Many business professionals associate “people skills” with “charisma,” and charisma with effective leadership. There are a few problems with that chain of logic.
Recently, researchers analysed a database of 17k executives and found that, while a charismatic person was more than 2x as likely to be hired as a CEO, this didn’t correlate with a better performance once they were hired. In the same study, introverted leaders far outperformed expectations.
While introverted leaders aren’t as outwardly bubbly as extroverted leaders, they are more attuned to emotional cues and sensory details.
In fact, introverts experience more blood flow to the frontal lobes and thalamus — areas of the brain that deal with internal processing and problem-solving. Researchers have posited that this offers them a leg up in working through complex personal situations on small teams.
Myth #3: Introverts are bad communicators
It’s easy to misinterpret an introvert’s internal processing as disinterest. But per our survey responses, most introverts are just methodical thinkers:
“I’ll spend a lot of time going over scenarios in my head before actually saying or doing anything,” says John Sherwin, CEO of the pharmaceutical startup Hydrant. “It’s rare that I put a completely unfiltered thought or plan out in the open.”
Our survey elicited dozens of responses from leaders who said their introversion made them better listeners:
- “I tend to let other people talk, really listen to what they’re saying, then come in with less words that are more powerful.” — Kevin Pasco, co-founder of Nested Naturals (supplment company)
- “As an introvert, you’re more likely to pick up on emotion and subtle cues from the people you work with, which makes you more effective at negotiating and motivating.” — Vesy Ivanova, founding partner of Brand Strategy Agency (creative consulting)
- “Introverts have the ability to listen to hear, not just listen to respond,” — Kellie Knapp, law firm administrator
Research has shown that introverts use more concrete, precise language when describing things. They may take longer to contribute, but when they do speak up, they make sure their contributions are well-developed and valuable.
This way of communicating can actually be beneficial in a leadership capacity.
Myth #4: Introverts don’t like collaborating
While introverts generally prefer to work alone, they also excel in working toward a collaborative goal — especially in a dynamic, unpredictable environment like a start-up.
In fact, in our survey, 89%of introverted leaders said they enjoyed professional collaboration.
A Harvard study found that extroverts excel at leading passive teams (employees who simply follow commands), but are actually far less effective at leading “proactive” teams where everyone contributes ideas.
Introverts are often more effective than extroverts at leading proactive teams because they don’t feel threatened by collaborative input, are more receptive to suggestions, and are more attentive to micro expressions.
These benefits can a measurable impact on profitability and productivity.
Researchers analysed 57 managers and 374 employees at 130 branches of a major pizza chain and found that franchises led by introverts were 20% more profitable than franchises led by extroverts.
In another study, researchers broke 163 students into 56 groups — some led by an introvert, and others by an extrovert — and had the teams fold as many t-shirts as they could in 10 minutes. They concluded that teams led by the introverts were also up to 28% more productive.
Proactive teams led by introverts are both more productive and more profitable than proactive teams led by extroverts.
“The extroverted leaders appeared threatened by and unreceptive to proactive employees,” concluded the study. “The introverted leaders listened carefully and made employees feel valued, motivating them to work hard.”
The takeaway: Tips for aspiring introvert leaders
As an introvert, it’s easy to feel as if the very foundations of business leadership are engineered against you — especially considering that today’s tech czars are as much celebrities as CEOs.
But introverts have unique personality traits that can empower them to be exceptional leaders if properly leveraged.
We asked successful introvert founders to share some techniques they’ve used to harness the power of their introversion. Here’s a selection of what they said:
- Balance your time: For every 1-hour meeting, make sure to plan at least 30 minutes to yourself.
- Get out of your own head: Write down all your ideas and share them with someone you trust. Don’t rob the world of your internal genius.
- Be unapologetically genuine: Don’t try to be an extrovert, or force yourself to be more outgoing or bubbly.
- Optimise for deeper (rather than broad) relationships: I need to know someone quite well to feel comfortable asking things of them, and ultimately these relationships end up being more rewarding both personally and professionally.
- Be clear about your thought process: Introverts store thoughts for a long time before speaking; be sure to make your process transparent.
- Actionise your observations: As an outsider looking in, you offer a unique viewpoint; turn all your listening and observing into actionable suggestions.
Go the Introverts!
(Thank you Zachary Crockett and The Hustle.)